IMPACTS ON HUMAN SYSTEMS SMART FRAMEWORK Lymphatic Circulatory Musculoskeletal Gastrointestinal All Systems Reproductive Respiratory Nervous Endocrine Urinary Emissions Violence HealthyDestinations ActiveTransportation Inclusion Noise Green Space Contamination Violence Reducetraffic violencefor all users Reducevehicle emissions Increase active transportation options Increase connectivity and social inclusion Minimizetraffic noise Promote greenspace and reduce heat Reduce run-offand contamination from transportation ALL Increase access to healthy destinations Circulatory Hypertension Low blood pressure Endocrine Nausea Sleeplessness Gastrointestinal Liver failure Nausea Ulcers Musculoskeletal Arthritis Nervous DepressionFatigueMemory loss Reproductive Low birthweightPremature birth Urinary Renal dysfunction (including kidney failure) Contamination Reduce run-off and contaminationfrom transportation Contamination is caused by oils, gasoline, heavy metals, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocar–bons that can be found on roadway surfaces due to motor vehicle traffic (Burant et al., 2018; Gaffield et al., 2003; Khan and Strand, 2018). These chemicals can contaminate water sources, soils, and the air, potentially ending up in what humans consume (Adamiec et al., 2016). All Systems Heat stress Circulatory ArrhythmiaHypertension Stroke Endocrine DiabetesImproved sleep patterns Lymphatic Immune function Nervous Cognitive impairment Mental health problemsStress Reproductive Improved pregnancy outcomes Premature birth Respiratory AsthmaChronic obstructive pulmonary disease Green Space Promote green space and reduce heat Green space is land that is partly or completely covered with grass, trees, shrubs, or other vegetation and accessible to the public. Green spaces contribute to physical activity (Ying et al., 2015) and reduce the likelihood of negative mental health outcomes (Zijlema et al., 2018), diseases, and premature mortality (Gascon et al., 2016). Green spaces also reduce the adverse effects of harmful transportation-induced environmental exposures such as urban heat islands, air pollution, and noise (Hartig et al., 2014; Nieuwenhuijsen, 2016). Urban heat islands are spaces with greater surface and air temperatures than surrounding rural areas (Coseo and Larsen, 2014). All Systems Obesity Circulatory Hypertension Ischemic heart diseaseStroke Endocrine DiabetesSleep disturbance Nervous Disruption to concentration and educational attainment Stress Reproductive Low birth weightPremature birth Respiratory Exacerbation of asthma Minimize traffic noise Noise Traffic noise at levels detrimental to health can be emitted from motorized vehicles as well as other modes, such as airplanes. Noise level is dependent on factors like road networks, junctions, traffic flow and speed, acoustics, and meteorological conditions (Zuo et al., 2014; Bell et al., 2014; Foraster et al., 2011). Circulatory Cardiovascular disease Nervous Mental health problems Stress Increase connectivity and social inclusion Inclusion Disconnecting communities through community severance results from transportation infrastructure and/or motorized traffic that separates places and people, interfering with the ability of individuals to access goods, services, and personal networks (Mindell et al., 2017). This barrier effect is associated with mental health problems and premature mortality (Anciaes et al., 2019). Social inclusion avoids transportation-related depravations (e.g., affordability, accessibility, availability) that limit the opportunity to socially participate in community activities, which contributes to negative health outcomes (Julien et al., 2015) All Systems Obesity Increase active transportation Circulatory HypertensionIschemic heart diseaseStroke Endocrine DiabetesInsomnia Obesity Nervous Anxiety DementiaAlzheimer’s disease ActiveTransportation The lack of physical activity is considered a health crisis due to its role in the obesity epidemic and contribution to numerous other diseases (Khreis et al., 2016). Physical inactivity is the fourth largest contributor to global mortality (World Health Organization, 2018b), resulting in 3.2 million global deaths annually (World Health Organization, 2018c). Health care costs related to physical inactivity around the world were estimated at $53.8 billion in 2013 (Ding et al., 2016). Additionally, analyses have shown that for each $1 spent on active transportation, there is a $8.41 return on investment (Urban Design 4 Health and AECOM, 2016).