Compact cities refers to urban plans that are related to a much more densely populated occupancy with multiple uses (such as households, businesses, and activities) and the encouragement of pedestrian, cycling, and public transportation-user mobility.1 Development density and development mix increases physical activity by providing greater access and convenience for active and public transportation users by shortening the distance and obstructions between origins and destinations.2 This increased accessibility benefits less mobile populations and could enable them to travel independently more frequently and reduce community severance. The compact city concept is one of several ideas for addressing comparable issues in emerging countries. In actual practices, the compact city concept is confined to densification, redistribution of density, execution of public transportation development plans, and mixed uses of land resources.3 It is built on a well-functioning public transportation system and an urban design that, according to its proponents, fosters walking and cycling, as well as minimal energy use and pollution. It is also considered a more sustainable urban settlement form than urban sprawl since it is less reliant on automobiles and hence requires less (and less expensive) infrastructure.
How it Helps
For a better implementation strategy, a national urban policy framework that includes compact city policies should be established. A metropolitan-wide strategic planning goal should also be encouraged.
A network which will promote mixed-land use, harmonize industrial policies with compact city policies, regenerate existing residential areas, promote transit-oriented development in built-up areas, and promote walking and cycling environments should be established.
Minimize Adverse Impacts:
To combat potential negative impacts, it is important to counteract traffic congestion, encourage the provision of affordable housing, and encourage the greening of built-up areas.
Retrofit Existing Areas:
Strategies which will promote brownfield development, harmonize industrial policies with compact city policies, regenerate existing residential areas, and promote transit-oriented development in built-up areas should be considered.
1) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
OECD promotes compact urban development and supports evidence-based planning to enable communities to become more sustainable and inclusive. OECD examines several policy instruments that may exploit the advantages of compact urban form and gives suggestions on policy and governance frameworks at different administrative levels based on comparative research on compact city policies across territories.
2) European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (ERBD)
ERBD presents approximately 35 policy choices for communities and their citizens to achieve a sustainable future and reframes these policies using real examples from more than 50 case studies worldwide. Through the Green Cities project, the EBRD has substantial experience in identifying, prioritizing, and integrating urban environmental concerns with sustainable policies and investments.